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Our genetic counselors can tell you how our tests can improve your health and lifestyle.
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No. You have to do it yourself by following the simple instructions presented within the kit
Both work well for analysis, provided the sample collected is adequate. Buccal swabs need to be submitted as per the instructions within the kit. Blood samples require at least 2-3 ml. In case an inadequate sample is submitted, the client will be notified on priority.
Every step of the sample processing happens in India, at our own full time laboratory by our own staff and trained personnel who are dedicated to Mapmygenome and its products.
Yes this is possible. After collection of the sample, it can be stored at ambient temperatures and does not require special packaging. Ensure the lid of the tube is screwed on tightly to avoid drying out of the swab.
We screen your genetic data for the presence or absence of variants or markers to calculate your risk thresholds as either ‘High’, ‘Medium’ or ‘Normal’. We have developed a robust algorithm which is used for risk estimation based on genotypes present in an individual’s DNA sample.
We identify if your genome has any condition-associated mutations called Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, also known as SNPs. If they are present, we try to identify what condition they are present in.
We take a very stringent approach to select our panel of SNPs. We only consider SNPs with proven association for any particular condition, replicated in many case-control studies, including multiple ethnicities. We include Indian-specific data where ever it is present and only if it passes our selection criteria. We are also building an ‘Indian-specific condition associated biomarker database’ through our research efforts, which will continuously feed our services.
We have built a database using over 14 years of our bioinformatics experience and by curating data from international journals and scientific literature. While we have tried to include as many conditions as possible to increase the value of the reports, we have focused on markers that have been validated and are suitable for the Indian population, especially for Type 2 diabetes, obesity, clopidogrel response and so on.
Mutations or variations in genetic material are very less likely to develop over the years. From the time you were screened for certain markers, only if you have been subjected over a long period of time to drastic environmental changes or occupational/lifestyle habits that are harmful, you can wish to re-submit the sample and be analyzed again. Otherwise, the odds of genotype changing are low.
Your report is updated regularly in accordance to current research and databases registered worldwide. Once you sign up, you will receive free updates for a whole year, as and when we add new conditions or upgrade to a different database. A fresh sample is not required.
If you are already susceptible to a particular disease or are being treated for the same, you can understand your body’s tolerance and toxicity towards certain drugs, which affects therapy you are currently undergoing. Your report will also illuminate your carrier status for some diseases and thereby the probability of passing on the same to your children.
LTR is your life time risk for getting a particular disease. This notion is slightly confusing and we have summed it up as a multiple of average risk and explain the average risk in the content in detail. ALTR is the average life time risk in your population. These are numbers that have come from the prevalence ratios by WHO. If the ALTR is 8%, it means 8 out of 100 Indians have a risk of getting a particular disease.
No, it doesn’t automatically imply that you will get the disease. For a disease to have a clinical manifestation, there are several other influencing factors such as familial history, lifestyle, clinical history and exposure to environmental factors.
We use the services of Ocimum Biosolutions that hold several patents in this space. We are also undergoing certifications like NABL and CE mark. The lab is already ISO certified.
Yes, Mapmygenome uses the services of Ocimum Biosolutions. Ocimum Biosolutions has ISO 9001:2010 and ISO 13485:2012 certification. We are also undergoing NABL and ISO 15189 for medical labs and CE certification to enable sales to the EU.
Ancestry information is reported by genotyping the mitochondrial and Y DNA sequences. We will have this very soon in our future panels.
The raw data from Genomepatri will contain your genotypes pertaining to half a million markers on our chip. This includes 56000 genes, autosomes and the X/Y markers as well. The test will report only those markers which are suited for the Indian population. However, the raw data will also have universally validated markers for Caucasian and Asian studies. A zip file roughly 90 MB in size will be shared via your email, on request
The chip used is an Illumina chip which is a standard chip with custom content. The markers on this chip are the result of meticulous selection of markers done by the company over 2 years along with standard content that may have some relevance in the future. So some genes are not yet associated with any condition but the idea is to continue to expand the scope of what we can offer to customers.
Markers that we don’t use today have some vague associations in small studies. As this field advances, that data will be markedly more interesting. As a result the large number of markers will be more relevant as the data set expands. We would then be able to come up with novel targets and also find smaller specific population specific associations which will be useful in the future.
One of the most important things is to ensure that we use statistically significant markers. That involves removing those mutations that do not follow our quality cut off criteria like size of study, P values, odd ratio etc. In order for a study to be relevant, we check on these parameters to ensure that there is a correct correlation with disease.
The Snappy algorithm we use to process the genetic data is proprietary. The best confirmation of this is in the correlation of genotype to phenotype and matching it with their health records and family history. As the numbers increase, these can be validated with a higher accuracy. For specific diseases, we are at the moment working with some Pharma companies to be able to test a specific population with a specific disease. Numbers of 10,000 for a disease would be statistically significant but require large amounts of funding.
Mapmygenome has several trademarks filed and is planning on a patent for the Snappy Algorithm. Also because of the agreement with Ocimum, Mapmygenome has access to the 60 patents filed by Ocimum Biosolutions.
Mapmygenome uses Illumina’s Top Bot approach, as it is the most standard form to ensure that the risks are accurately calculated. This is a notation and can differ from dbSNP's notation.
Whole genome sequencing or WGS is a method where your entire genome is read alphabet-by-alphabet (ATGC), while genotyping is a method to identify if there is a change in known and associated location on your DNA. Genotyping is similar to WGS; however, instead of looking at the entire genetic makeup, it is possible to look at only certain meaningful locations in your genome. Moreover, WGS is time consuming and expensive, whereas genotyping could be managed at a fraction of that.
By screening various research articles, we have identified 13 SNPs that play a major role in Genetic Risk associated with Cardiovascular Diseases. For each of these SNPs, we have also collected information on their Genotypic Odds Ratios and frequencies. Using this information, we calculate Genetic Risk associated with genotypes of each SNP. A cumulative score is calculated across all the SNPs based on person’s genotypes. A person with risk genotype for many SNPs would have higher risk than the person with lesser number of risk genotypes. When you have 10 out of 13 markers, it means that you have risk genotype for 10 SNPs out of 13 SNPs that we have considered in our study. Consequently, you have 38% high risk for Cardiovascular Disease when compared to a person having no risk genotype (normal/control sample).
In Genomepatri, we screen and report single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs/markers) that contribute to high risk for a given health condition. These include: Autosomal regions, Sex-linked variants (X,Y chromosome snps), SNPs between genes, SNPs in coding regions of genes. Your report highlights only the markers which are significantly associated with the corresponding disease/trait/drug (in the tables provided), as these will increase your predisposition for the same, when compared to a control sample. If you wish to receive your complete profile/genotypes for the entire set of markers (raw data), we can send you the same. This will consist of autosomal DNA, as well as other data.
Who interprets Brainmap reports and gives the correct picture of one’s genetic predisposition and the counseling at your facility?
The report sounds a little scary. What if I do not know how to deal or cope with the consequences?
The guidance by the genetic counselor helps in understanding how to overcome a disease through diet and exercise. The counselor also suggests how to get diagnostic and at what frequency. We intend to send a follow up report to the consumer to arm them with this knowledge.
Mapmygenome has many partners for nutrition and fitness. Also Mapmygenome works with an expert panel of doctors. Some of our partners have expressed interest in supplying vitamins, medications but that needs evaluation at this time.
The Mapmygenome laboratory is ISO-certified and complies with GLP standards. All samples are processed under stringent quality control settings. Data accuracy is close to 99% and risk assessment is done by a robust algorithm developed for reporting clinically relevant findings. Sample collection, analysis and reporting is done by trained personnel using gold-standard kits and equipment which are internationally approved.
Genomepatri can be done for children and adults at any stage. The earlier a Genomepatri is made, the easier it is to prevent any disease, so it is recommended that it be done asap
Anyone can get a GPK. The simplicity lies in the fact that regardless of your age, medical status and family background, Genomepatri will provide you valuable information that will empower you to take the right steps towards building better health. If you are someone who wants to be aware about possible genetic risk and mitigation, you can get tested anytime.
Many medical conditions have a strong genetic association, which along with environmental factors is likely to lead to clinical manifestation. Although you cannot change your genetic makeup, you can make a few lifestyle changes for a healthy life. GenomePatri™ helps you make a preemptive strike at a medical condition, which does not necessarily mean medical management in some cases.
Since we analyze your genomic DNA for predisposition to health conditions, the odds of the genotypes changing over the years are very, very low. Unless you are continually exposed to hazardous chemicals and extreme environment for a prolonged period of time, the genotypes remain the same and hence, so will your predisposition. Only the impact of these SNPs is alterable, i.e., "phenotype" or clinical manifestation, depending on your lifestyle and diet, environment etc. This is why we do not ask people to get re-tested, under normal circumstances. Only updated conditions/inferences would be added to existing reports.
Yes, we do. You can learn more about these services here. For WES: http://mapmygenome.in/diagnostics/whole-exome-sequencing
Data from SNP genotyping is 99% accurate. The difference between WGS and our panels like GPK, CAR, ONC etc is the coverage, rather than data accuracy/quality. We target key regions (loci) and genes to make a comprehensive health report.
SNP data from GWAS (Genome Wide Association Studies) varies between populations. However, for certain conditions like diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular, BRCA etc- the same markers are equally important in Indians as well as Caucasians. Our tests were developed for conditions that are prevalent in India and have strong validation in SNP association studies.
Mapmygenome is backed by Ocimum Biosolutions- 14+ years experience in bioinformatics developed databases for gene expression etc. The markers are analyzed through a statistical algorithm that is proprietary. Going forward, Mapmygenome aims at establishing correlations for all diseases by validating all the markers on its own, through in-house data.
Yes, not all cancers are inherited. Cancer biology and genetics is very complex, and the genetic component varies for every syndrome/condition. While geneticists agree that no single test can completely rule out the possibility of getting cancer, screening for variations helps identify individuals at risk. In such a case, it becomes imperative to adopt preventive measures, get to know about available screening options/tests, frequency of check ups, etc. Those with a family history of cancer are definitely good candidates for genetic testing, yes. However, the number or percentage caused by genes alone cannot be put down as a mere 2 percent (several studies claim that only 5-10% of cancers are caused by inherited mutations). With respect to our test, we have included variants which are found in the general population, along with known gene mutations.
There are many options for cancer screening- predictive screening (Oncomap) for known polymorphisms (which predict your Lifetime risk) and diagnostic tests (Full Gene sequencing eg., BRCA1/2, Cancer mutation Panels) which report pathogenic mutations. We have both the kinds of tests in our portfolio. Oncomap and the other prognostics tests are unique and available only with Mapmygenome. We recommend that you speak to our senior genetic counselor, who will interpret this for you, depending on your family history, current clinical indications etc. Pre-test counseling is offered before taking any test. This will help you find the test which suits your requirement.
OncoMap is a genetic test which screens for high-risk variants (SNPs pronounced ''snips") in the DNA sequence, which help estimate lifetime risk for conditions like breast cancer, colorectal cancer and 15+ different cancers. This is purely based on your genotypes (sequences in DNA code) and does not take into account current medication, clinical history etc. However, the report is followed up with a detailed counseling session wherein our senior counselors (medical and genetics experts) interpret your report for you, by correlating the test's findings with your health history and other factors.
The report is followed up with a detailed counseling session wherein our senior counselors (medical and genetics experts) interpret your report for you, by correlating the test's findings with your health history and other factors. Based on the test outcome (eg., high risk for a certain condition), our counselor may recommend follow up tests - eg., mutation screening, gene sequencing or oncologist consultation.
GyneacMap is a composite analysis for conditions affecting reproductive, endocrine and metabolic functions in women. It holds value for women of all ages. Risk for certain conditions increases with age, like Breast and ovarian cancer, osteoarthritis and hypothyroidism. Understanding your overall risk can help you delay onset or manage symptoms better.
No, our test is not diagnostic in nature. The results would be the individual's genetic predisposition to different conditions. With BrainMap, Tarun can get tested for conditions like Multiple sclerosis, meningioma, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, ALS and more. Since he is currently afflicted with a syndrome (not yet identified, as his father says), he should be told that certain conditions in BrainMap are likely mid- or late-onset and can manifest later. However, drug response can be useful for Tarun, if his doctor is willing to give his inputs for this (you may check with his father regarding current medication-eg., antipsychotics). We will have this included in our panel soon.
Yes, we do MTHFR mutation screening, currently included in GPK and CardioMap. As a separate test, please check with the business team regarding pricing.
Post test counseling is included in the service, wherein a certified genetics expert goes through the report and health history, clinical indications etc and recommends appropriate measures - screening tests, diagnostics etc.
Blood sugar and diabetes are affected greatly by lifestyle modifications, like proper diet and exercise. This mechanism is called ''epigenetic intervention''. Predictive testing for such conditions is very important to identify if you are at high risk and accordingly, adopt preventive measures.
By screening various research articles, we have identified 13 SNPs that play a major role in Genetic Risk associated with Cardiovascular Diseases. For each of these SNPs, we have also collected information on their Genotypic Odds Ratios and frequencies. Using this information, we calculate Genetic Risk associated with genotypes of each SNP. A cumulative score is calculated across all the SNPs based on person’s genotypes. A person with risk genotype for many SNPs would have higher risk than the person with lesser number of risk genotypes. When you have 10 out of 13 markers, it means that you have risk genotype for 10 SNPs out of 13 SNPs that we have considered in our study. Consequently, you have 38% high risk for Cardiovascular Disease when compared to a person having no risk genotype (normal/control sample).
Hypertension has a considerable genetic component and the test screens for major polymorphisms - knowing your genetic risk can motivate you to take necessary steps to manage symptoms better eg., drug response, possible risk for family members etc.
We need your informed consent to genetic testing and sharing raw data (for research), terms and conditions. These documents will be shipped to you along with the sample collection kit. You may sign them and send them back to us, along with your sample.
We collect samples from all over the country- our logistics partners reach major cities and towns and co-ordinate with us for sample shipping, sample collection and delivery. Once your test request is placed (online or through our business executives) and necessary confirmation is in place (payment/EMI options), our team will ship you a buccal swab kit to the address specified. Depending on your location, it may vary between 2-3 working days.
Our standard TAT (turn-around time) is 6-8 weeks. The electronic version of the report will be sent to your personal email address. We can also ship a hard copy to your address, on request.
Yes, the test package includes 30 minutes of genetic counseling (no charges)- via Skype/Telephone/consult in person at Hyderabad office. Counseling can be done for people across different cities too. However, for those who wish to avail extended counseling with a senior/chief counselor, additional charges may be applied. Our team has certified experts, who have medical and scientific (genetics) background. But Mapmygenome does not provide medical advice on its own. We recommend you share your report with your physician.